What is Pituitary dwarfism
Pituitary dwarfism is growth disturbance due to anterior pituitary hypofunction in young children. According to the etiology of Pituitary dwarfism can be divided into two types:
1. Primary Pituitary dwarfism: the majority of patients with unexplained, and no family history, only a small part of a family history and that is autosomal recessive inheritance.
2. Secondary Pituitary dwarfism: very rare, any lesion in the anterior pituitary or hypothalamic damage may be cause stagnant growth and development, common causes are tumors (eg, craniopharyngioma, optic chiasm or hypothalamic glioma, pituitary xanthoma etc.), infections (such as encephalitis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, etc.), trauma, vascular necrosis and X-ray damage.
What is Pathological changes of Pituitary dwarfism?
Causes of Pituitary dwarfism mainly is pituitary atrophy, lack of growth hormone of anterior pituitary secretion resulting in growth retardation, may also caused by the lack of hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor. The growth hormone cells is direct effect of the body, can increase the size and number of cells and promote the growth of the body. As a major growth hormone protein synthesis, it can speed up the transfer of amino acids from the extracellular to the cells and stimulate DNA replication and RNA transcription. The growth hormone can reduce peripheral tissue utilization of glucose, elevated blood sugar, it can inhibit the transfer of glucose to the cells, glucose and insulin to promote the role of the functioning of cells is just the opposite, so that it and insulin in regulation of glucose metabolism is the role of mutual antagonism; In addition, it promotes fat mobilization and utilization of energy to supply. When growth hormone deficiency, can causes slow or stagnant growth.
At the same time, the majority of patients have inadequate secretion of pituitary gonadotrophin, and some cases have thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion are lacking to cause some endocrine dysfunction.