Mitral regurgitation Diagnosis
Mitral regurgitation is diagnosed by some tests as follow:
1. X-ray examination: mild mitral insufficiency, can be found no obvious abnormalities. In severe cases, the left atrium and left ventricle increases markedly, significantly increased over the left atrium to the esophagus and oppression. Pulmonary hypertension or right heart failure, the right ventricle increased. Yu visible pulmonary vein blood, pulmonary edema and KerleyB line. Leaves and often mitral valve ring calcification. Contrast left ventricular mitral regurgitation may be quantitative.
2. ECG: Patient with mild mitral insufficiency can see a normal ECG. In severe cases, may have left ventricular hypertrophy and strain; pulmonary hypertension may occur when the left and right ventricular hypertrophy performance. Chronic mitral regurgitation with left atrial fibrillation increased more there. Sinus rhythm and those who were widened P-wave-shaped peaks, suggesting that increased left atrium.
3. Echocardiography: is the most accurate non-invasive diagnosis for detection and quantification of mitral regurgitation, two-dimensional echocardiography show reflectance increased back and forth leaf in mitral valve, thickening, valve orifice have bad involution in systolic closure; tendons rupture, the mitral valve was flail like to change the surface can be seen in the left ventricular long-axis systolic valve was in the gooseneck hook-like to the left atrium, diastolic wave was whip-like drift to the left ventricle. M-mode ultrasonography can be seen before the leaves diastolic mitral EF slope increased, the increase rate of valve activity; the expansion of the left atrium, systolic excessive expansion; left atrial and ventricular septal activities expanded over. Doppler ultrasound showed that left atrial systolic regurgitation. See left heart contrast agents in angiography by left ventricular systolic back to the left atrium.
4. Radionuclide examination: radionuclide blood imaging showed expansion of the left atrium and left ventricle, left ventricular end-diastolic volume increase. Pulmonary hypertension, the pulmonary trunk can be seen and the expansion of the right ventricle.
5. Right heart catheterization: right ventricle, pulmonary artery and pulmonary capillary pressure increased, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, left cardiac catheterization increased left atrial pressure, the pressure curve marked v-wave, and reduced cardiac output.