Mitral annulus calcification
Mitral annular calcification is a chronic fibrous non-inflammatory degenerative diseases in the mitral valve support structures. The general was particularly prevalent in women and elderly patients over the age of 70, often leads to a variety of heart disease, such as mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation of infective endocarditis, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular block. It is a more common signs of Echocardiography.
Causes of mitral annular calcification is unknown, have been found in patients with atherosclerosis, occurs most often in the posterior lobe of the ventricular surface.
Symptoms of Mitral annular calcification is based on the bad degree of Mitral valve calcification. Mild MAC have no clinical manifestations. Severe Mitral annular calcification have symptoms include thickening and fixed of Mitral ring, and ventricular heart can not become smaller, the activities of limited mitral valve, can cause mitral regurgitation or stenosis, in the apex and the left edge of the lower part of the sternum can be systolic murmur heard at the bottom of conduction to the heart. The sinus node disease and conduction system often degeneration exist, and the emergence of sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular block, slow atrial fibrillation, such as room rates, a small number of patients with valve ring as a result of the formation of calcium loosening emboli, occurred in different parts of the thrombosis, more common for brain and retinal artery embolization.
Diagnosis for Mitral annular calcification mainly is X-ray and echocardiography. X-ray can show mitral annular calcification shadow. Two-dimensional echocardiography can be seen in the atrioventricular junction in front of a strong echo reflection Mission. And movement in the same direction with left ventricular wall.
Treatment for Mitral annular calcification: Repair surgery. calcified plaque must be removed carefully to prevent ventricular rupture, especially in the depths of the calcified plaque wall. Mucinous change in mitral annulus calcification is caused by mitral valve disease. Typical degenerative valve ring calcification is in the back ring, but sometimes also in the back ventricle wall. Mitral annular calcification are often accompanied by the extension of tendons and back mitral valve dysfunction. Because mucus calcification does not involve tendons, or thickening of valve leaflets. So, restoration for mucinous valve is easier than rheumatic valve, and have a better long-term effects after restored.