Hemolytic uremic syndrome diagnosis
Doctor may suspect that a people has hemolytic uremic syndrome after learning the history of symptoms and physical examination. This may show liver or spleen swelling and nervous system changes. Then the diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory tests include:
- Complete blood count (CBC ) might show:
- Decreased platelet count (thrombocytopenia)
- Rupture of red blood cells
- Anemia from loss of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia)
- Elevated white blood count
- Blood clotting tests such as PT and PTT may be normal or abnormal.
- Chem-20 shows abnormalities, such as BUN is elevated, creatinine is elevated, free hemoglobin is elevated.
- Urinalysis may reveal blood and protein in the urine.
- Urine protein test can be used to show the specific amount of protein in the urine
- Stool cultures. Since E. coli O157:O7 is the most common cause of HUS, attempts are made to culture the bacteria from stool samples. The body usually clears the bacteria from the stool within a week, so a negative test does not exclude the disease.
- Abdominal x-ray. A diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Common Laboratory Abnormalities in Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome diagnosed:
- Anemia: hemoglobin count of 5 to 9 g per dL (50 to 90 g per L)
- Thrombocytopenia: a low platelet count less than 150,000 per mm3
- Decreased haptoglobin
- Elevated C-reactive protein level
- Hemolysis on peripheral smear: burr cells, helmet cells
- Increased l-lactate dehydrogenase level
- Blood and protein may be found in the urine on urinalysis
- Reticulocyte count moderately elevated
- Stool culture positive for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7