Esophageal cancer is malignant tumors that occurred in the esophageal epithelial tissue, accounting for 2% of all malignant tumors. Every year some 22 million people died of esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer is a high incidence, deaths due to esophageal cancer after gastric cancer in second place, age of onset more than 40 years of age, more men than women, but in recent years incidence of 40 years of age have the growth trend. The occurrence of esophageal cancer and chronic stimulation nitrosamines, inflammation and trauma, genetic factors, as well as drinking water, food and vegetable content of trace elements.
Esophageal cancer in the esophagus of the upper, middle and lower segment is differences. According to data indicate that: the highest incidence rates in the middle (52.69% ∽ 63.33%), followed by the next paragraph (24. 95% ∽ 38. 93%), minimum upper II (1. 8% ∽ 14. 1%). Etiology of esophageal cancer in a large number of mainly long-term smoking, drinking; eating too fast, over-heated; food excellent, too thick, strong irritant; favorite smoked, flooding the system, moldy food, etc., may be the incentive for this disease. And esophagitis, esophageal mucosal vitiligo, corrosive burns food, esophagus and esophageal stricture partial injury may be the precursor lesion of this disease. In addition, the incidence of esophageal cancer with mold contamination, malnutrition, vitamin C and vitamin B2 of the lack of trace elements iron, copper, zinc and the lack of the low serum selenium.
Esophageal pathological patterns: Early: insidious type, ulcerate type, plaque type, papillary type and protruded type; in late: medullary, fungating, ulcer type, narrow type, cavity type.
Histological of esophageal cancer: the majority of squamous cell carcinoma, the minority for adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, carcinosarcoma. Expansion and transfer: the proliferation of esophageal direct infiltration of adjacent organs, lymph node metastasis and blood. Clinically, about 50% of patients in the time of diagnosis has been the transfer of blood or lymph node metastasis.