Hypernatremia Treatment include correct water loss, supplementary isotonic saline and 5% glucose solution, intravenous rehydration.
Diagnosis for hypernatremia is blood tests such serum sodium concentration, red blood cell; urine test such urinary sodium and chlorine concentration.
Symptoms for hypernatremia is thirst, reduced urine, nausea and vomiting, weak, irritability, sleepiness, convulsions and more.
Hypernatremia is caused by lack of water intake, loss of too much water, barriers to sodium excretion and more.
Hypernatremia is too much sodium (usually> 145mmol / L) in blood, reduce sodium, and higher serum sodium concentrations.
Treatment for Hyponatremia include sodium chloride intravenous solutio, limit the water intake and inhibition of ADH release, sodium complement.
Hyponatremia is diagnosed by Blood test, blood serum potassium, chloride. Blood glucose, plasma protein and red blood cell count.
Symptom of hyponatremia is weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, sleepiness, muscle cramps, reversible neuropsychiatric, ataxia, convulsions, stupor.
Causes of hyponatremia is sodium loss from renal, lack of glucocorticoid, hypothyroidism, drug-induced, renal failure, hepatocirrhosis and heart failure.
Hyponatremia is a condition that sodium less than 135mmol / L in blood. Normal values for serum sodium 142 mmol / L (135-145 mmol / L).
Treatment for hypercalcemia is to reduce serum calcium, include saline infusion, expand of blood volume, increase in urinary calcium excretion.
Symptoms of hypercalcemia is fatigue, headache, weakness, depression, excitability, convulsions, coma, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
Hypercalcemia is caused by primary hyperparathyroidism, malignant tumors (bone tumor, leukemia), Secondary hyperparathyroidism, Toxicosis with vitamin D.
Hypercalcemia is a condition that the concentration of serum ionized calcium unusual increase and calcium concentration is higher than 2.75mmol / L.
Treatment of hypocalcemia include intravenous injection of 10% diluted calcium gluconate 10ml and take orally calcium and vitamin D.
Diagnosis for Hypocalcemia include Determination of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, phosphorus in urine, serum PTH and ECG.
Hypocalcemia symptoms include increased neuromuscular excitability, muscle cramps, convulsions, easily excited, emotional instability.
Hypocalcemia causes is lack of parathyroid hormone, lack of vitamin D or metabolic abnormalities, Chronic renal insufficiency, Acute pancreatitis.
Hypocalcemia is a condition that Serum calcium less than 2.2mmol / L. Normal serum calcium concentration is 2.25 ~ 2.75 mmol / L.
Treatment of hypermagnesemia include intravenous calcium gluconate or calcium chloride, reduce blood magnesium, increase urine magnesium excretion, hemodialysis.
Hypermagnesemia is diagnosed by Serum magnesium increased, volume of urine magnesium excluded, Electrocardiogram, B-ultrasound.
Symptoms of hypermagnesemia include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, skin flushing, headache, dizziness and more.
Hypermagnesemia Causes is Magnesium emission reduction from renal, shift-out magnesium from cell, Excessive take medicine of magnesium.
Hypermagnesemia is condition that more than the normal serum magnesium concentration in blood (>1.05mmoL/L).
Treatment for Hypomagnesemia is prevention of causes, supplement magnesium, infusion magnesium salt.
Hypomagnesemia is diagnosed by Determination of serum magnesium, urinary magnesium, intravenous magnesium load test, ECG.
Symptoms of hypomagnesemia are muscle weakness, cramps, cardiac arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, bone softening.
Hypomagnesemia is Caused by intestinal malabsorption, increase in aldosterone secretion, kidney diseases, diabetic acidosis.
Hypomagnesemia is serum magnesium less than 0.75mmol / L, normal magnesium in the plasma is 0.8. ~ 1.05mmol / L.
Treatment for hyperkalemia include intravenous calcium gluconate, reduce serum potassium, low potassium diet, hemodialysis.